Nature article to commemorate Charles Darwin’s birthday on 12th February

Darwin’s win-win for Global Worming?  R.J.B 12th Feb., 2017.

Few realize Charles Darwin had a soft spot for the humble earthworm and scientific data to show why.  The topic of his swan song book was: Worms & Vegetable Mould (= earthworms & topsoil humus) in which he calculated that all fertile soils have passed many times through their bodies, and should continue to do so.  Darwin’s (1881: 158) estimated from Hensen (1877: 360) that there must exist 133,000 living worms in a hectare of land (ca. 13.3 m-2) with 3 g per worm (Darwin mistakes this for 1 g) (= 40 g/m2 or 0.04 kg m-2), or 53,767 in an acre with this latter number of worms he calculated as weighing 356 pounds per acre.  Such a modest estimate gives a global earthworms population of around 1.3 x 1015 or 1.3 quadrillion with (0.4 t ha-1 x 9.5 Gha of productive land) = 3.8 Gigatonne biomass, or about ten times all humanity.


As a cross-check of accuracy, my PhD mentor Dr Ken Lee (1985: tab. 7) has summary with average of 273 m-2 and 63 g/m2 (= 0.63 t ha-1) for a range of biome habitats (0.63 x 9.5 Gha) = ~6.0 Gt total earthworm biomass.  If global non-ice/sand topsoil land were taken as 12.1 Gha (Ref), this gives (0.63 x 12.1 Gha) = 7.6 Gt or just about double the result from Darwin’s figures.

Interestingly, although often thought of as good fishing bait, the earthworm fresh weight of 3.8-7.6 Gt is double or quadruple the “wet weight” of global fish stocks confidently calculated as between 0.89-2.05 Gt (Ref1, Ref2) of which just 0.15 Gt are total annual combined fish catch & aquaculture (Ref3), the highest on record so far.

Since Dr Ken Lee’s (1985: 33, 348) reference text on Earthworm Ecology has their moisture content at 70%, thus 30% dry,  a total is of between 1.14 to 2.28 Gt dry biomass.

Richly organic topsoil populations of earthworms are much higher – averaging 500 worms m-2 and up to 400 gm-2 – such that, for the 7 billion of us, each person alive today has support of 7 million earthworms.  There are 7,000 currently described earthworm species (see Blakemore, 2015: 542; Ref) now working day & night, rain or shine, relentlessly recycling organic matter for healthy plants that sustain all Life on Earth from the Sun’s energy.

Darwin (1881: 173) also estimated that earthworms annually eject in the order of 15 tons (his actual mean value was 14.09 tons) of surface castings per acre of pasture/commons land (= 33.6 t ha-1 yr-1 x 9.5 Gha of non-ice/desert land = 319 Gt yr-1 globally, cf. FAO)*.  Although this too is surely an underestimate as earthworms can process their own body weight of humus per day and often they cast below ground – sometimes as deep as 15 m – as well as on the surface.  Nevertheless, fertile topsoil has >24 kg m-2 of recyclable Organic Carbon (= 2,300 Gt C globally)** in living soil organisms or locked up in humic matter (+ glomalin) produced from activities when alive or their bodies when they die.

Organic farming/gardening preserves substantially higher levels of earthworms (as all good farmers & gardeners know), more water and carbon with greater yields & lower costs (financial, environmental, medical).  This was clearly shown at Lady Eve Balfour’s pioneering Haughley farm 36 yrs ago and in a 1981 study to mark Darwin’s book’s Centenary (this study eventually published by Blakemore, 2000); see also Blakemore (2016a, 2016b).

Balfour at Haughley

Why all this is especially relevant today is twofold: Firstly, topsoils are degrading with 50-70% now lost to erosion and pollution giving us perhaps only 60 years more of harvests.  Secondly, and inter-related, is that we are rapidly losing earthworms too. Populations decline under intensive agriculture – as demonstrated at Haughley – and following deforestation, with many species becoming extinct: e.g., recent review of New Zealand’s 200 native earthworms listed 20 or so (ca. 10%) as extinct or likely soon to be [see also my 2018 publication –; backstory Refs.].

Regarding Climate Change (and Global ‘Worming’), the only way proven to remove CO2 from the air (so-called Carbon Capture and Storage or CCS) is via plant photosynthesis and, since Darwin’s earthworms reprocess leaf litter, therefore all atmospheric CO2 is recycled via worm intestines in regular 12-yr cycles (as estimated from NASA data)**.

A positive outcome of the 2015 Paris COP21 meeting is a proposal (4 per 1000 Initiative) to increase soil carbon.  Yet it seems Darwin, the “Father of Evolution”, had good prescience in 1881 to already offer us this practical, safe and reasonable soil-based solution to critical trilemma of global Species Extinction, Climate Change &  Food Supply.

My humble proposal, along the lines of 4 per 1000 Initiative (that refers to extra 0.04% organic carbon in topsoil needed to reduce global greenhouse gasses), is to aim for “4 worms per 1,000 g soil“.  This would give us an entirely reasonable earthworm population of ~400 worms per m2 – as was found in Haughley’s permanent pasture – or 4 million worms per hectare thereby ensuring not only extra carbon, but also greater aeration, drainage, soil water and yields.  Plus, importantly, greater biodiversity of earthworms and of whatever else depends upon them (which ultimately is most other organisms)…

Thanks CD; we salute you and our under-appreciated earthworm friends with a debt of gratitude on your birthday.  The beauty is Darwin again showing with his worms that, as with his evolution, small changes in time may have massive beneficial consequences. Either way, both earthworms and evolution have brought us this far…


*FAO (2015: 103) estimates median soil formation as just 0.15 t ha-1 yr-1.

**NASA has carbon in SOIL (~2,300 Gt) = all in plants (550), air (800) + oceans (1,000) combined!  As >60 Gt atmospheric C is reprocessed via soil per yr (800 / 60) = ~12-13 yrs.  However, note that my recent recalibration that accounts for ignored terrain & neglected topsoils ups global soil organic carbon to >8,500 Gt ( This study more than doubles global biodiversity & biomass, especially that of topsoil forming earthworms, but may preserve a similar rate due to increased leaf-litter too (from ~60 Gt leaf-litter C per year for flat-Earth to >120 Gt for terrain).

Details of data presented here are in latest Cosmopolitan Earthworms CD (Blakemore, 2016) and on VermEcology websites: Annelida ( & veop (  Date (original version): 12th Feb., 2017.  Email

Submission of this, and similar articles, to BBC, Guardian and Nature got nary a reply…

[Update 10th May, 2017. I stand corrected, Nature did graciously accept my small submission – “Soil: Restore earthworms to rebuild topsoil” – So, for the worms, things are looking up!].

[Update 27th May, 2018. A new publication recalculated global biomass with some figures compliant with above estimates, and others, as is to be expected, considerably off: ;  All these global values subsequently updated by Blakemore (2018) – see

Photos below are of The Mount, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK; the Grinshill sandstone steps are for Dr Robert Darwin, who was portly, to mount his horse [the brickwork behind appears as an unusually modified raking monk bond, possibly for a boundary wall].  And I believe Chaz’s birth room is actually the 2nd window of the 1st floor, or 2nd window of 2nd floor in Japanese.


© R.J. Blakemore May, 2017; May, 2018; Jan. 2019.


My personal objection to use of the term “creatures”, or its derivative “critters” for living organisms, now defers to CD’s sentiment too in his letters, viz. Ref. 1863: “I have long regretted that I truckled to public opinion & used Pentateuchal term of  creation, by which I really meant “appeared” by some wholly unknown process.” Perhaps using Sir Albert Howard’s term “existences” may be suitable for whatever resolves as the most reduced and functionally evolvable construct in Life, such as for a species, or a colony. Increasingly, each higher organism is being revealed as a complex colony (as in human colon!) of essential and mutual symbionts. (Note: A selfish gene differs as the most reducible part as it cannot operate independently, not even in a virus).


2 thoughts on “Nature article to commemorate Charles Darwin’s birthday on 12th February

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.